Nanopatterning of monolayer graphene by Quantum Optical Lithography

E. Pavel, V. Marinescu
Storex Technologies,
Romania

Keywords: monolayer graphene, Quantum Optical Lithography, laser, diffraction limit

Summary:

Semiconductors industry requires novel materials in order to realize improved and novel nanodevices. 2D materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2) are intensively studied. Graphene has exceptional electronic, mechanical, thermal and chemical properties and could be used for interesting applications: FETs, LCDs, photonic devices and sensors. Prototyping nanodevices below 10 nm is accessible by three methods: Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL), and Quantum Optical Lithography. Quantum Optical Lithography is a diffraction-unlimited method able to write arbitrary nanopatterns. The breaking of the diffraction limit of light is explained by a coherent exciton mechanism [1]. Complex patterns like geometrical figures and letters were obtained at 3 nm resolution [2] on resist substrate. Quantum Optical Lithography was applied to pattern trilayer graphene at 20 nm resolution [3]. In our tests with CVD monolayer graphene samples, we have succeeded to produce flat surfaces of a sandwich of monolayer graphene-resist on Si substrate. Graphene sample has been written by Quantum Optical Nanowriter QON-2000 system operated at 2 μW laser power (λex =650 nm) and speed of 10μm/s. Parallel lines and squares have been obtained. References [1] E. Pavel, "Coherent exciton mechanism of three-dimensional quantum optical lithography", Applied Optics 54 (2015) 4613-4616 [2] E. Pavel, G. Prodan, V. Marinescu and R. Trusca,"Recent advances in 3- to 10-nm quantum optical lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 18 (2019) 020501. [3] E. Pavel, V. Marinescu and M. Lungulescu, “Graphene nanopatterning by Quantum Optical Lithography “, accepted for publication in Optik– International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Elsevier, 2 October 2019.